The use of microseismic monitoring for the investigation of rock bursts and mine instability is well established in many countries. CSIRO's work has pioneered the use of microseismic monitoring for the study of the caving associated with the underground mining of coal using the longwall method. In longwall mining, the roof rocks need to fail and fall into the mined out area, so as to avoid an excessive build up of stress at the coal face and in the pillars of coal to the sides of the mining panel. The amount of stress generated is a function of the physical dimensions of the longwall panel, the strength of the geological strata, the regional stress , and the specifications of the longwall equipment. Microseismic monitoring has a role to play because the failure of the rock strata causes microseismic emissions. Monitoring of these emissions allows determination of the fracture location and the mining induced stress release in 4D (x, y, z, t), and the mechanism of the source failure, .
CSIRO has developed and built its own microseismic monitoring system. The microseismic monitoring system is designed to operate continuously with minimal intervention, record data from numerous triaxial geophones and can also be remotely controlled from our office in Brisbane.
Microseismic monitoring has been conducted at ten longwall coal mines and two highwall coal mines throughout Queensland and New South Wales. The results from these projects have demonstrated that microseismic monitoring can accurately and dynamically determine the extent of fracturing in the roof and floor strata of a coal seam, the intensity of rock failures and failure mechanisms and therefore, has great potential for operational use in detecting mining hazards. Mining panel layouts have been altered on the basis of microseismic layouts to ensure that mines are safer and more productive.
Microseismic monitoring enables the accurate determination of mining induced stress release in 4D (x, y, z, t), providing a mechanism to help mine operators address ground control issues including
Height of caving assessment. Mines are faced with the problem of establishing safe working distances below stored water, aquifers and weak, unconsolidated units.
Caving associated with underground mining eg. stopping advance, cyclic loading, face failures, gateroad failures, assive failure in overlying units, etc.
Ground surface subsidence management.
Underground gas emissions.
Gas outburst and rock burst prediction.
Slope stability monitoring and control in open pit mining.
Span and stability monitoring during highwall coal mining.
|Coal Mine||Location||Research Area||Year of Experiment|
|Gordonstone Colliery||Queensland, Australia||Longwall Caving||1994|
|Appin Colliery||NSW, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1996|
|North Goonyella Colliery||Queensland, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1997|
|Oaky Creek Colliery||Queensland, Australia||Highwall Stability||1996|
|Southern Colliery||Queensland, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1998|
|South Blackwater||Queensland, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1998|
|Xinglongzhuang||Shandong, China||Longwall Geomechanics||1999|
|South Blackwater||Queensland, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1999|
|South Bulli Colliery||NSW, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1999|
|Moura Mine||Queensland, Australia||Highwall Stability||1999|
|Southern Colliery||Queensland, Australia||Longwall Geomechanics||1999|
|Dartbrook Colliery||NSW, Australia||Longwall Gas, Geomechanics||1999|
Siroseis is a CSIRO developed seismic data processing package designed specifically for mine scale microseismic monitoring. This is in response for a need to reduce the labour intensity required for seismic data processing. Siroseis’ features include:
Ø Determination of fracture location and origin time.
Ø Easy to use MS-Windows based program.
Ø Determination of event magnitude.
Ø Energy spectrum analysis.
Ø Determination of fracture mechanisms (shear or tensile failures).
Ø Several signal processing and filtering tools.
Ø Automatic arrival time picking and event location.
This information is extremely valuable for strata control and mine hazard management. Siroseis is currently under further development.
Laric Hawkins Memorial Award 1998 ASEG Conference for Paper "Microseismic Monitoring on Longwall Mining".
ACARP Award of Excellence in the Underground Category for 1998 for ACARP Project "Ground Behaviour around Longwall Faces and its Effect on Mining".
Luo X., King A., Ross J, 2000, Microseismic monitoring at Southern Colliery for understanding roof fracturing mechanisms, CSIRO Report No. 696.
Luo X., Ross J, King A., 2000, Microseismic monitoring at Moura Mine for highwall stability assessment, CSIRO Report No. 677.
Luo X., Ross J, King A., 2000, Microseismic monitoring at Dartbrook Mine for underground gas emission control, CSIRO Report No. 675.
Luo X., Ross J. 1999, Microseismic monitoring of floor breakages associated with longwall production at LW3 at South Blackwater Colliery, Preliminary Report to South Blackwater Mine, CSIRO Report No. 633C.
Luo X., Ross J., Hatherly P. 1999, Microseismic monitoring of longwall start-up at LW703 Southern Colliery, Report to ACARP 1999.
Luo X., Ross J. 1999, Microseismic monitoring at LW3A at South Blackwater Colliery, Preliminary Report to South Blackwater Mine.
Hatherly, P., Luo, X., Zhou, B., Poole, G. 1998, Geophysical detection of fractures in coal mines, Proc. 4th SEGJ International Symp., Tokyo, Japan, Dec 12-17, pp 57-62.
Luo X., Hatherly P. 1998, Application of microseismic monitoring to characterise geomechnic conditions in longwall mining, 13th Geophysical Conference and Exhibition, ASEG, Hobart, Australia, Nov 8-12, 1998. Exploration Geophysics 29, 489-493.
Luo X., Hatherly P., Gladwin M. 1998, Application of microseismic monitoring to longwall geomechanics and safety, Proc. 17th Conf. Ground Control in Mining (ed Syd S. Peng), Morgantown, USA, August 4-6, 1998, pp72-78.
Luo X., Hatherly P. 1998, Understanding of high gas emissions at Appin Colliery through microseismic monitoring, Proc. Int. Mining Tech.' 98 Symp. (eds. D. Zhu, S. Jiang and R. Wang), Chingqing, China, Oct 14-16, 1998, pp74-79.
Luo X., Hatherly P., Fallon G. 1998, Seismic tomographic determination of ore boundaries at Scuddles Mine in Australia, Preview, Issue No. 4, June/July 1998.
Luo, X., Hatherly, P., McKavanagh B., 1998, Microseismic monitoring of longwall caving processes at Gordonstone Mine, Australia, in Advances in Rock Mechanics, (ed. Y. Lin), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, pp 67-79.
Luo, X., Hatherly, P., Duncan Fama, M., Shen, B., Follington, I., Leisemann, B., 1998, Microseismic monitoring of roof reaction to highwall mining, Proc. International Conference on Geomechnics/Ground Control in Mining and Underground Construction (eds. Aziz N. and Indraratna B.), Jul 14-17, Wollongong, Australia, pp 1059-1066.
Kelly M., Gale W., Luo X., Hatherly P., Balusu R., Smith G. L., 1998, Longwall caving process in different geological environments better understanding through the combination of modern assessment methods, Proc. International Conference on Geomechnics/Ground Control in Mining and Underground Construction (eds. Aziz N. and Indraratna B.), Jul 14-17, Wollongong, Australia, pp 573-590,
Luo, X., Hatherly, P., Fallon, G., 1998, Determination of ore boundaries using seismic tomography at a metalliferous mine in Australia, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering and Environmental Geophysics, (eds. Z. He and R. Huang), Chengdu, China, Oct 25-28, 1997, pp 86-92.
Dr Xun Luo - Research Group Leader
Dr Peter Hatherly - Principal Research Scientist
Dr Andrew King - Research Scientist
Mr Justin Ross - Data Analyst
Mr Shanshan Wang - Visiting Scholar
This page was created and is maintained by Justin Ross.